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Stanford Social Innovation Review: Summer 2011

New and valuable mHealth apps are coming out all the time. What sort of open architecture can support this wave of innovation?

Resource: Stanford Social Innovation Review Article

A program using cell phones to get anti-malaria drugs to the rural spots that need them most is one program that has helped lower deaths from malaria in Africa Silvio Gabriel, an executive with Novartis Pharma, told a Stanford Graduate School of Business audience.

Resource: News Article
[photo - Photo: Dr. Paul Auerbach]

When Paul Auerbach arrived in Haiti, after the January 2010 earthquake, he faced a sea of death and misery the likes of which he'd never seen. A member of Stanford Emergency Medicine's rapid response team under the auspices of International Medical Corps, Auerbach, Sloan '89, eventually assumed the role of lead physician coordinating the medical and logistical efforts of teams from around the globe.

Resource: News Article

Woodrow Myers, MBA '82, who has shaped attitudes toward some of the world's most perplexing health issues, urged MBA students to use their skills to meet today's hardest challenges. He was honored with the 2010 Black Business Students Association's outstanding alumni award.

Resource: News Article

Ted Turner, who 30 years ago heralded the Information Age by founding CNN, has turned his focus to developing ways to stop global warming, encourage energy conservation, and stem population growth. He challenged MBA students to find solutions because "We've got to take better care of the planet."

Resource: News Article

A program using cell phones to get anti-malaria drugs to the rural spots that need them most is one program that has helped lower deaths from malaria in Africa Silvio Gabriel, an executive with Novartis Pharma, told a Stanford Graduate School of Business audience.

Resource: News Article
[photo - Photo: Dr. Paul Auerbach]

When Paul Auerbach arrived in Haiti, after the January 2010 earthquake, he faced a sea of death and misery the likes of which he'd never seen. A member of Stanford Emergency Medicine's rapid response team under the auspices of International Medical Corps, Auerbach, Sloan '89, eventually assumed the role of lead physician coordinating the medical and logistical efforts of teams from around the globe.

Resource: News Article

Woodrow Myers, MBA '82, who has shaped attitudes toward some of the world's most perplexing health issues, urged MBA students to use their skills to meet today's hardest challenges. He was honored with the 2010 Black Business Students Association's outstanding alumni award.

Resource: News Article

Ted Turner, who 30 years ago heralded the Information Age by founding CNN, has turned his focus to developing ways to stop global warming, encourage energy conservation, and stem population growth. He challenged MBA students to find solutions because "We've got to take better care of the planet."

Resource: News Article

Practically all taxes distort economic incentives to some extent, opines healthcare expert Alain Enthoven. But taxes on healthcare currently under consideration by the Senate Finance Committee are particularly perverse. Instead of promoting prepayment and integrated care with the right incentives-the best long term strategy for keeping coverage affordable-this policy moves us in the wrong direction.

Resource: News Article
Stanford Social Innovation Review: Spring 2007

Step aside, Stephen Covey. Kent Buse and Andrew M. Harmer have discovered seven new highly effective habits. And theirs may help rid the world of its more deadly diseases, rather than just upping people’s productivity.

Resource: Stanford Social Innovation Review Article
Stanford Social Innovation Review: Spring 2007

Recent neuroscience research confirms that people view drug addicts as not quite human.

Resource: Stanford Social Innovation Review Article
Stanford Social Innovation Review: Spring 2007

Samantha King argues that the rise of philanthropy targeted at breast cancer has helped turn the disease from a political issue to a mainstream marketing gold mine.  Review by Fran Visco

Resource: Stanford Social Innovation Review Article
Stanford Social Innovation Review: Winter 2007

The MacArthur “genius” prize winner creates drugs for the developing world.

Resource: Stanford Social Innovation Review Article
Stanford Social Innovation Review: Fall 2006

Larger social service organizations may result in less innovation.

Resource: Stanford Social Innovation Review Article

Social media is helping people self-assemble for social action.

Resource: Blog Post

A look at how community advisory committees are faring in the health field.

Resource: Blog Post
Video/Audio : All | Audio | Video
[photo - Photo: Andrea Coleman]
Many areas of rural Africa suffer from a lack of health care delivery. In this audio interview with host Sheela Sethuraman, Andrea Coleman explains how she and her husband founded Riders for Health to provide life-saving assistance to such regions. She outlines how the organization uses motorcycles, in particular, to transport health care providers and medical goods, and how it has created a sustainable approach.
Resource: Audio
[photo - Photo: Thulasiraj Ravilla]
How did a free eye clinic that started in a house in south India in 1976 grow to become Asia's first international training facility for blindness prevention workers? In this audio interview, host Sheela Sethuraman speaks with Thulasiraj Ravilla from the Aravind Eye Care System. Ravilla concentrates on the innovative approaches that Aravind has developed to become a model for high-quality, low-cost health care.
Resource: Audio
[photo - Photo: Vera Cordeiro Rio]
When Dr. Vera Cordeiro Rio worked at Hospital da Lagoa in Rio de Janeiro, she witnessed a constant admission/re-admission cycle in childcare treatment. To break that cycle, she gathered medical community volunteers to form Renascer, addressing root causes that prevent families from receiving adequate care. In this audio interview, join host Sheela Sethuraman as she learns how Cordeiro Rio translated her passion into a methodology that is quickly sweeping through Brazil and the world.
Resource: Audio

The question of what to eat to be healthy has spawned a rash of often contradictory advice by "experts." In this audio lecture, sponsored by the Stanford Ethics and Society Program, NYU professor and author Marion Nestle offers simple advice that cuts through the confusion. She highlights the difference between "nutrients" and "food," and suggests how to bring "nutrition" back into the food realm. Her discussion forays into how agriculture and business interact to produce the foodstuffs on our shelves.

Resource: Audio
[photo - Paul Farmer]
AIDS, malaria, and maternal mortality are some of the chronic public health issues that plague Africa. Invited to Stanford, Paul Farmer talks about how his Boston-based organization, Partners In Health, is spending donor dollars to bring the lessons garnered from its work in Haiti to scale up health care services in war-torn Rwanda. As dicussed in this audio lecture, his organization seeks to fill the gap that exists between medical R&D and health care delivery so preventions and cures can be brought to more of the people who need them.
Resource: Audio
[Video-Using Social Media to Save Lives, Part 2 of 3]

A leukemia diagnosis for Sameer Bhatia is the start of a nation-wide project to create a bone marrow registry in India. Robert Chatwani describes one family's innovative effort to create social change and, in the process, find a perfect match for Sameer.

Resource: Video
[Video-Using Social Media to Save Lives, Part 1 of 3]

A leukemia diagnosis for Sameer Bhatia is the start of a nation-wide project to create a bone marrow registry in India. Robert Chatwani describes one family's innovative effort to create social change and, in the process, find a perfect match for Sameer.

Resource: Video
[Video-Using Social Media to Save Lives, Part 3 of 3]

A leukemia diagnosis for Sameer Bhatia is the start of a nation-wide project to create a bone marrow registry in India. Robert Chatwani describes one family's innovative effort to create social change and, in the process, find a perfect match for Sameer.

Resource: Video
[Video-From Demoralization to Living Community]

In the year 2000 DaVita, the largest independent provider of dialysis services in the United States, was being investigated by the SEC and sued by shareholders. Kent Thiry explains how building community bumped DaVita's market capitalization to $3 billion and turned it into a leader in its field.

Resource: Video
[Video-Incentivizing Efficient Healthcare through Technology: Richard Migliori]

"You are more likely to have your plan of care influenced by your zipcode than the stage of your disease," says Richard Migliori. "30% of our expenditures could be reduced if we have a normalization of this variation."

Resource: Video
[Video-Medical Device Innovation]

Problem: the only remedy for morbid obesity is invasive surgery. Innovation: an oral device that reduces obesity without an incision.

Resource: Video
[Video-Service Innovation Panel]

"Innovation isn't about a point in time, it's about creating sustainable change over time," says Paul Wallace.

Resource: Video
[Video-DC2VC Panel Discussion ]

Government representatives and venture capitalists came together to hear Stanford student teams speak about the barriers that routinely prevent healthcare innovations from getting to market.

Resource: Video
Case Studies : All | Academic Cases
No Results Found
[photo - Diagnostics for the Real World]

Diagnostics for the Real World (DRW) focuses on manufacturing and commercializing technologies that addresses the unmet diagnostic needs of patients in developing countries. DRW's first product was a reliable, low-cost Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) that made it possible to conduct field-based screenings in remote, low-resource settings. DRW believed the CRTs were commercially attractive; however market introduction was met with stakeholder resistance and funder/consumer misalignment. This case explores the potential gap between the solution and market demand, as well as DRW's response.

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - DRW]

Diagnostics of  the Real World (DRW), a for-profit spinout from the Diagnostics Development Unit at the University of Cambridge, is focused on manufacturing and commercializing technologies created at the university that can help address the unmet diagnostic needs of patients in developing countries. DRW's first product was a reliable, low-cost Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) that made it feasible to conduct field- based chlamydia screenings. The team discovered that although chlamydia was a significant global health concern, its as not necessarily a top priority for nongovernmental organizations. There was also no ready-make market or large-scale demand for the CRT in developing countries. The case study describes the multi-source funding strategy DRW devised to support its operations without losing sight of its mission. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - DoseRight]

Traditional Borders (BTB), Rice 360°’s undergraduate program, challenges students to solve global health problems through real-world engineering design.  By pairing students with faculty, clinicians, and mentors in developing world, BTB teams had designed an impressive portfolio for effective, low-cost medical technologies. However, the temporary nature of student teams and specialized focus of these inventions proved difficult to realize these projects in the market to create consistent solutions. This mini-case study tells the story of of BTB began working with 3rd Stone Design, a design, strategy, and development consultancy, to accelerate progress on their project DosRight Syringe Clip out of the lab and into the market. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - DoseRight]

When 3rd Stone Design, a product design, strategy, and development consultancy, licensed the DoseRight Syringe Clip out of the Rice University Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) program, the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) had placed a preliminary order for 200,000 units. The DoseRight product was a simple plastic clip, inserted into the top portion of a standard oral syringe to facilitate the accurate pediatric dosing of liquid ARV medications in countries with widespread HIV/AIDs. However, 3rd Stone Design encountered problems when their prototype could not be manufactured in high volumes at an affordable price. This case study explores how 3rd Stone Design modified its product design to fulfill the CHAI order. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - JaipurFoot]

When a team at Stanford University accepted a challenge to design a low-cost prosthetic knee joint that could be produced locally for use in the JaipurFoot Organization's clinics across India, the students were eager to dive into the technical aspects of developing a product. However, they learned the organization already used an inexpensive joint that through research, discovered that associated emotional and psychological issues needed to be addressed in creating a better design. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - JaipurKnee]

When a team at Stanford University accepted a challenge to design a low-cost prosthetic knee joint that could be produced locally for use in the JaipurFoot Organization’s clinics across India.  While Sadler and his teammates viewed their early experience with the JaipurFoot Organization as incredibly valuable, the team decided that it wanted to make its low-cost knee joint available to amputees beyond the Jaipur clinics in India. Unfortunately, they discovered significant market barriers as many amputees who would benefit from their product are treated by multiple scattered and remote clinics. This case describes how the JaipurKnee team developed a strategy to access its target market and scale up its business. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Life Force Kiosk]

Life Force Kiosks is a nonprofit that aims to reduce preventable waterborne diseases like typhoid, cholera, and diarrhea to save lives in the most vulnerable communities. The organization developed a new model of preventing water contamination by working with existing community water vendors to purify water and clean storage containers affordably at the tap. In implementing this model, Life Force Kiosks would depend on a portion of the money collected from consumers to help underwrite the costs of the program and enable it to become sustainable on a long-term basis. Accordingly, it needed a system for tracking inventory, as well as the payments made, but corruption at the vendor Life Force Kiosks ultimately devised. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Life Force Kiosk]

Life Force Kiosks is a nonprofit that aims to reduce preventable waterborne diseases like typhoid, cholera, and diarrhea to save lives in the most vulnerable communities. The organization developed a new model of preventing water contamination by working with existing community water vendors to purify water and clean storage containers affordably at the tap. In Kenya, slums are used to bringing their water containers to locla water taps and paying water vendors to fill them. Life Force Kiosks equips these water vendors with supplies and container cleaning serves to customers for a small incremental charge. When the founder of Life Force Kiosks was ready to launch this new service, he recognized the importance of hiring people from the community to help him establish and expand his operations. This case study explores his approach to identifying and collaborating with a local team. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - SafePoint]

After reading a newspaper article that predicted the spread of HIV through medical syringes, Marc Koska committed himself to addressing the threat of unsafe injections. He spent nearly ten years in the field, investigating all aspect of the problem. The result was K1 Auto Disable (AD) syringe, which physically prevents reuse by locking the plunger once it has been fully depressed. Koaska shopped the product to the major syringe manufactures, but discovered the produces believe was an inadequate demand to warrant investing in the syringe. Koaska gradually convinced organizations to become customers, but the sales of the AD syringe were not growing fast enough to make an impact.

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - SafePoint]

After reading a newspaper article that predicted the spread of HIV through medical syringes, Marc Koska committed himself to addressing the threat of unsafe injections. After much research, the result was K1 Auto Disable (AD) syringe, which physically prevents reuse by locking the plunger once it has been fully depressed. To help raise awareness about the dangers of needle reuse and help stimulate demand for AD syringes, Koska founded a nonprofit called the SafePoint Trust. One of SafePoint’s first activities was to launch an aggressive public awareness campaign in India. As a result of the effort, 26 states in the country switched to using only AD syringes in their public health facilities. However, the change didn't stick, which several states reverting to the use of regular syringes over time. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Gradian]

After observing too many unnecessary injuries and deaths caused by surgeries that were interrupted or canceled due to the unavailability of anesthesia, Dr. Paul Fenton designed a devices called the Universal Anesthesia Machine (UAM) that could deliver safe, reliable anesthesia even in the midst of a power outage. On of Gradian Health System's early challenges was determining how to position and market the UAM to four distinct but interconnected stakeholder groups. They were able to  to get off the ground mostly through referrals, but Gradian did not consider this to be a sustainable approach. The cast study examines how Gradian developed a comprehensive marketing strategy for stimulating UAM adoption. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Impact Review]

 

While enrolled in a course focused on entrepreneurship, a team of Stanford students set out to create a platform for developing-world healthcare providers that would facilitate improved information sharing bout high-impact, affordable solutions in the material and infant health space. The result was Impact Review, an online knowledge-base. When the team members graduated from Stanford, they had to determine what was next for Impact Review. This mini-case study describes how the Impact Review team explored its options and the solution it developed to ensure the sustainability of the technology. 

 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Phoenix]

Phoenix Medical Systems was founded to manufacture an incubator designed specifically to address the needs of low-resource healthcare providers in India. Initially its founder, who also designed the device, tried selling his incubator through the few medical equipment, but found relative to the simple medical products, these companies found the incubator technically complex. Distributors' sales were willing to represent the product but did not understand how it worked. This case study looks at how Phoenix built its own direct sales force to address the problem.

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Brilliance]

Team members at D-Rev - a U.S. nonprofit technology company with the mission to improve the health and incomes of people living on less than $4 per day - became interested in the problem of infant jaundice.  D-Rev confirmed that jaundice was a problem in rural areas where equipment to treat the condition was virtually nonexistent. To address this issue, the D-Rev team created a prototype phototherapy solution for  jaundice treatment product called Brilliance. This mini-case study examines D-Rev's strategy and approach to raise funds for a market-ready product. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Brilliance]

 

When team members at D-Rev — a U.S. nonprofit technology company — became interested in the problem of infant jaundice, they initiated a detailed assessment of the phototherapy landscapes in India and Nigeria and created a prototype for a jaundice treatment product called Brilliance. When D-Rev was ready to start thinking about taking Brilliance to market, the team carefully evaluated its own competencies and concluded that the organization’s strengths were not in product manufacturing or after-sales services and believed it should enter into a licensing agreement to accelerate Brilliance’s market penetration. The challenge was to find the right partner and structure the partnership deal effectively to ensure that D-Rev’s social impact goals would be achieved. This mini-case study explores how D-Rev identified its partner and crafted an agreement to motivate desired behavior.

 

Resource: Academic Case
Research Papers : All
[photo - Robert A. Burgelman]

Based on comparative case studies of Apple Computer’s strategic actions in the music and cellular telephone industries, this paper develops the concept of a “cross-boundary disruptor” as a new type of entrepreneurial actor in inter-industry strategic dynamics. It examines what kind of company could become a cross-boundary disruptor in the U.S. health care industry to help it overcome its long-standing stasis.

Resource: Research Paper
[photo - Daniel Kessler]

To identify the important tradeoffs in consulting a single expert for both diagnosis and treatment, the authors examine the costs and health outcomes of elderly Medicare beneficiaries with coronary artery disease.

Resource: Research Paper
[photo - John Cogan]

In this paper, the authors calculate the consequences for health spending and the federal budget of an above-the-line deduction for out-of-pocket health spending. These estimates are compared to those of past researchers. Implications on tax policy are discussed.

Resource: Research Paper
[photo - Alain Enthoven]

This paper provides an analysis of the structure of the health care delivery system, emphasizing physician group practices. The authors argue for comprehensive integrated delivery systems (IDSs).

Resource: Research Paper
[photo - Jennfer Aaker]

How can health officials, both in the public and private sector, ensure that their messages of prevention get heard? The studies conducted by Jennifer L. Aaker, the General Atlantic Professor of Marketing at the Stanford Graduate School of Business; Nidhi Agrawal of Northwestern University; and Geeta Menon of New York University suggest that an individual’s emotional state of mind affects how they cope with messages containing bad news about health risks. This suggests that individuals are more apt to accept negative health messages while watching humorous or “happy” programs.

Resource: Research Paper
Courses : All

The two-quarter Elective Course series provides lectures from a diverse group of faculty that expose students to the practical aspects of technology invention and development. The class features a presentation or discussion from one of the guest speakers or faculty. Students work in small project teams in the Biodesign prototyping lab or bench space, collaborating with the fellows of the program.

Resource: MBA Course
[photo - Daniel Kessler]

The purpose of this class is to provide students with the economic tools and the institutional and legal background to understand how markets for health care products and services work. The class utilizes case studies, lectures, and visits from individuals in the industry.

Resource: MBA Course
[photo - Stefanos Zenios]

This course examines health care businesses and how they use technology (primarily biotechnology, medical technology, and information technology) to improve patient outcomes and manage costs. Through case studies, students gain an in-depth understanding of how new technologies get developed and commercialized in health care, and of how the whole health care value chain adapts to new technologies.

Resource: MBA Course
[photo - Alan Garber]

This course examines the application of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis, along with other evaluation techniques, to products and services such as medical care, whose "output" is difficult to measure. It critically reviews studies that apply cost analysis techniques to specific clinical problems.

Resource: MBA Course
Innovators : All
[photo - Ashanthi Mathai]

Vision care is something that is practically taken for granted in the United States, but that’s not the case throughout much of the world. Some 300 million around the globe suffer from correctable vision loss, leading, as Ashanthi Mathai, MBA '04, says, “to people accepting their vision impairment and adjusting their lives around it.” The result? A lower quality of life, restricted job options, and even further economic distress.


 

Resource: Alumni
[photo - Jane Chen (MBA '08)]

Jane Chen's passion for helping others has taken her on an incredible journey from doing social work in China to founding Embrace, a company that sells premature infant incubators.

Resource: Alumni
[photo - Karen Routt]

Caring for aging parents is a challenge many face, yet there is no clear path or pattern for how to manage this stage of life. Karen Routt shares her expertise at the nexus between technology and caring for the elderly.

Resource: Alumni
[photo - Dr. Patricia Einarson]

With a high-tech background, an MBA, and an M.D., Dr. Patty Einarson has a unique perspective on the intersection of technology, business and medicine.  She leverages this knowledge by contributing to math/science education in the public schools, encouraging the kids of today to become future innovators.

Resource: Alumni

Mark Cafferty is passionate about empowering individuals to be all they can be. He channels funds to employment and youth service programs.

Resource: CSI Affiliates
[photo - AdaptAir]

In resource constrained settings, bubble CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) is emerging as a more affordable treatment option for children with acute respiratory infections. However, some healthcare providers cannot ensure a tight seal between the infant's nose and mask which compromises the effectiveness of this approach. AdaptAir team developed a silicone adapter as a potential low-cost alternative. Despite the new product, AdaptAir encountered challenges when attempting to commercialize the device in the market. This case explores the challenges AdaptAir faced in determining its next steps and the lessons the teams learned about creating an accessory versus a stand-alone product.

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Consure Medical I]

After watching a colleague struggle with the care of his mother when she was affected by fecal incontinence, the Consure Medical team began investigating this problem as a potential need to address. Even though the team had a broad concept of the need it would address, they soon realized it would require more research to make the need actionable. This case study looks at how the Consure team determined which market to address and how challenges in design requirements to aid product development. 

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Consure Medical II]

Consure Medical is committed to developing a solution that involves the problems inherent in existing fecal incontinence treatments yet is simple enough for a motivated family member to use. With guidance from top doctors at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), the team developed an indwelling device similar to a short-term implant that offered multiple advantages over available treatment options. With a working product in hand, the cofounders’ next challenge was to determine a testing strategy that would validate the safety and efficacy of the device and support the company’s regulatory strategy. This mini-case study looks at the factors Consure Medical considered in defining a plan, as well as the approach the company ultimately defined.

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - PSI]

Population Services International (PSI) was founded in 1970 as a nonprofit organization focused on improving reproductive health in developing countries using commercial marketing strategies. As part of ongoing efforts to provide critical health services in developing countries, PSI sought to address the high unmet demand for family planning in Pakistan. PSI learned that the financial incentives were low and that few providers actually had the training to counsel clients. The case study describes how PSI devised and implemented a social franchising model to rapidly address these needs and achieve scale in the target communities.

Resource: Academic Case
[photo - Healthcare Reform]

A group of scholars propose a plan that could put a brake on health care spending.

Resource: News Article
Corner